Wanneer is dagga dagga?

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In hierdie rubriek skryf advokaat Gustaf Pienaar oor hofsake wat hierdie betrokke week in die nuus was. Die jaartal maak nie saak nie. Hierdie almanak is ’n tydmasjien wat heen en weer deur die regsgeskiedenis wip.

Dit lyk my as jy 'n polisieman is met jare se ervaring van die streke van daggasmokkelaars, is dit in sigself nie genoeg om 'n hof te oortuig dat dagga dagga is nie.

Vandeesweek se storie het begin by 'n padblokkade wat die polisie gedurende die nag van 8 Januarie 1983 by Robertson opgestel het. Omtrent halftwee die oggend het 'n motor die padblokkade vanuit Worcester se rigting genader. Toe die motor sowat 300 treë van die blokkade was, het dit skielik omgedraai en weggejaag. Die polisie se agterdog is gewek, en die motor is agternagesit. Na 'n jaagtog van 20 km het die motor wat die agterdog gewek het, onklaar geraak. Net voordat dit tot stilstand gekom het, is 'n geel plastieksak by die venster uitgeslinger. By nadere ondersoek het die polisieman wat die plastieksak gaan optel het, ontdek dat dit tien pakke dagga bevat het. Die bestuurder van die motor, ene Abraham Kaptein, is saam met die ander insittendes weens handel in dagga in hegtenis geneem.

Tydens hul verhoor het hul prokureur dit betwis dat die geel plastieksak dagga bevat het. Die staat het toe 'n monster van die dagga vir ontleding gestuur, en hoewel die forensiese laboratorium bevind het dat die monster bo enige twyfel dagga was, het daar 'n deurmekaarspul met die betrokke monster en ander soortgelyke monsters ingetree, sodat daar lateraan nie meer met sekerheid bepaal kon word of die monster wat deur die laboratorium ontleed is, inderdaad van die geel plastieksak afkomstig was nie.

Nou moes die staat op die twee polisiemanne se getuienis alleen staatmaak. Die een het soos volg getuig: "Ek het by die toneel een pak oopgemaak en gesien dat dit wel dagga is. Ek ken dagga. Ek het 14 jaar diens. Ek het aan die pit en blaar geweet dis dagga."

Ook die ander polisieman het getuig dat hy ná sewe jaar diens in die mag geen twyfel het dat dagga dagga is nie.

Maar die kruisverhoor van die beskuldigde se prokureur was vernietigend. Die kruisverhoor van die eerste polisieman het soos volg verloop:

Vraag :  Het u enige opleiding in die herkenning van cannabis? [Dis nou die geleerde naam vir dagga.]

Antwoord: Nee, net my ondervinding met jare in die polisie.

Vraag:   Pit van dagga, hoe verskil dit van pit van wilde dagga?

Antwoord: Kan nie sê nie.

Vraag:   En droë blare?

Antwoord: Kan nie sê nie.

Vraag:   Weet u watter toets gedoen moet word om vas te stel of dit cannabis is?

Antwoord: Nee.

Die ander polisieman het ook met soortgelyke ondervraging lelik kleigetrap.

Die landdros was egter tevrede met die polisiemanne se antwoorde en Kaptein en sy makkers is skuldig bevind, soos aangekla.

Op hersiening het regter Broeksma egter bevind dat die landdros gefouteer het deur die getuienis van die polisiemanne dat die inhoud van die geel plastieksak dagga was, te aanvaar. Die regter was van mening dat die polisiemanne geen bevredigende verduideliking gegee het waarom hul van mening was dat die inhoud van die sakke inderdaad dagga was nie. Niks is gesê van, byvoorbeeld, die kleur, reuk en voorkoms van die plantmateriaal in die sak nie.

Kaptein en sy makkers se skuldigbevinding is ter syde gestel en die regter het gelas dat die griffier van die hof 'n telegram na die gevangenis op Robertson moet stuur om Kaptein en kie te laat loop.1

O ja – net gou die vraag waarom hulle voor die padblokkade omgedraai en weggejaag het, as hul nie dagga in hul besit gehad het nie. Eenvoudig: die polisie het gesteelde vleis in die kattebak van die motor ontdek, en die verdagtes het verduidelik dat dit veiliger was om die hasepad te kies toe hulle die blou ligte van die polisiemotor by die padblokkade sien.

 

1     S v Kaptein & 'n ander  1984(4)(3) SA 316(C)

 


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Kommentaar

  • Dagga use is no reason to prosecute someone. It is a beneficial plant for humanity with a lower potential for harm to self and society, than coffee.

     
    The SAP resources will be better utilized, focusing on real crime. Re-legalize dagga in SA!
  • Avatar
    CorneliusHenn

    Beste Tgif,

    In ons sieke samelewing is aborsie goed en Cannabis sleg.  

    Dis ook maar net 'n enkele voorbeeld hoe gebreinspoel die meerderheid is.  

    Ek is absoluut oortuig dat die 'slimme' meerderheid nie eens 'n benul het omtrent die verskil tussen hemp en dagga nie!

    Cannabis is onlangs in Uruguay gewettig.  

    Maar dan moet 'n mens daarby besef dat Uruguay  'n samelewing met 'n  leier is en 'n moraal ken wat hoog bokant die in Suid Afrika troon!  

    Selfs gewone hemp sal onwettig bly om die profytmakery van die geldboewe in die land met hul apteke vol pille, drankwinkels vol drank en ander winkels vol sigarette te vrede te hou.  

    Cornelius Henn

  • Waarom word die gebruik van dagga onwettig verklaar? Waarskynlik omdat die oormatige gebruik daarvan soos rook gesondheidrisikos inhou en  'n mens se liggaam, eerder die brein, steeds 'n groter dosis nodig het om dieselfde effek te verkry.

    Dit is om die rede dat 'n mens nooit van die rookgewoonte ontslae raak, deur minder te rook nie.

     Daar is talle artikels beskikbaar op die web oor die gevare verbonde aan die gebruik van dagga.
    Hier is twee van hulle.
    1.Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in Britain. http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/drugs/Pages/Cannabisdangers.aspx
     2.Marijuana Use and Its Effects http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/marijuana-use-and-its-effects

     1.Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in Britain. http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/drugs/Pages/Cannabisdangers.aspx
    Find out about the health risks associated with its use.  

    There are several health risks associated with cannabis use, including dependency problems, mental health problems and lung damage. The effects of cannabis The effects of cannabis vary: Some people may feel chilled out, relaxed and happy, while others have one puff and feel sick.

     Others get the giggles and may become talkative. Hunger pangs are common and are known as 'getting the munchies'. Users may become more aware of their senses or feel that time is slowing down. These feelings are due to its hallucinogenic effects. A stronger joint (typically when skunk or sinsemilla is used) may have more powerful effects.

    Some users may moderate these effects by using less cannabis. Others may find it becomes tempting to binge smoke. Getting hooked on cannabis As with other drugs, dependence on cannabis is influenced by a number of factors, including how long you’ve been using it, how much you use and whether you are more prone to becoming dependent.

     You may find you have difficulty stopping regular use, and you may experience psychological and physical withdrawal symptoms when you do stop. Withdrawal symptoms can include cravings for cannabis, irritability, mood changes, appetite disturbance, weight loss, difficulty sleeping and, in some people, sweating, shaking and diarrhoea.

     If you've only been using for a short while there should be no problem stopping, but after continued regular use of cannabis, stopping can become more difficult. You’re also at risk of getting addicted to nicotine if you roll your spliffs with tobacco.

     Risks associated with cannabis
    The following risks are associated with cannabis use:
    Even hardcore smokers can become anxious, panicky, suspicious or paranoid. Cannabis affects your co-ordination, which is one of the reasons why drug driving, like drink driving, is illegal. Some people think cannabis is harmless because it’s a plant, but it isn’t harmless.

     Cannabis, like tobacco, has lots of chemical 'nasties', which, with long-term or heavy use, can cause lung disease and possibly cancer. The risk is greater because cannabis is often mixed with tobacco and smoked without a filter.

    It can also make asthma worse, and cause wheezing in people without asthma. Cannabis itself can affect many different systems in the body, including the heart. It increases the heart rate and can affect blood pressure. If you have a history of mental health problems, taking cannabis is not a good idea.

     It can cause paranoia in the short term, but in those with a pre-existing psychotic illness, such as schizophrenia, it can contribute to relapse.  If you use cannabis and have a family background of mental illness, such as schizophrenia, you may be at increased risk of developing a psychotic illness.

    It is reported that frequent use of cannabis can cut a man's sperm count and reduce sperm motility. It can suppress ovulation in women and so may affect fertility. If you’re pregnant, smoking cannabis frequently may increase the risk of the baby being born smaller than expected.

    Regular, heavy use of cannabis makes it difficult to learn and concentrate. Some people begin to feel tired all the time and can't seem to get motivated. Some users buy strong herbal cannabis (also known as skunk) to get ‘a bigger high’. Unpleasant reactions can be more powerful when you use strong cannabis, and it is possible that using strong cannabis repeatedly could increase the risk of harmful effects such as dependence or developing mental health problems. 

     2.Marijuana Use and Its Effects http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/marijuana-use-and-its-effects

    Marijuana, which comes from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, is the most frequently used illegal drug in the U.S. About 4% of American adults smoke pot at least once a year. Roughly 1% of adults abuse pot, and one in 300 have a pot addiction.

     Most people smoke the plant's dried leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds. But marijuana also can be mixed into food or brewed as a tea. Marijuana goes by many street names, including pot, weed, and herb. Hash, a concentrated form of the drug, is short for hashish.

    The rates of marijuana smoking in adults have remained stable since the 1990s. However, the rates of addiction to pot have risen significantly over that same period. And, according to recent government studies, as many as 30% of today's teenagers are smoking marijuana.

    Occasional marijuana use is rarely seriously harmful, but smoking pot has important medical effects.  

    .Physiological Effects of Marijuana 
     The active ingredient in marijuana is THC. That's short for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. THC is rapidly absorbed after smoking pot. Within minutes, THC and the other substances in marijuana smoke cause short-term medical effects.

     Signs of using marijuana include:
    Rapid heart rateI
    ncreased blood pressure
    Increased rate of breathing
    Red eyes
    Dry mouth
    Increased appetite, or "the munchies
    "Slowed reaction time
    These effects are reduced after three or four hours.

     However, marijuana hangs around in your system for as long as a month after smoking. The lingering effects mean you're impaired for several days to weeks after the high wears off.

    Psychological Effects of Marijuana
     According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the main effects of marijuana on mood vary and may include euphoria, calmness, anxiety, or paranoia.

     Getting high or "stoned" is the reason most pot smokers use marijuana.
    Other short-term psychological effects of pot include:
    Distorted sense of time
    Paranoia
    Magical or "random" thinking
    Short-term memory loss
    Anxiety and depression

    These psychological signs of using pot also generally ease after a few hours. But residual effects can last for days.

     Risks of Marijuana Use

    The risks of smoking marijuana go up with heavy use. Although the link has never been proven, many experts believe heavy pot smokers are at increased risk for lung cancer. Heavy marijuana use lowers men's testosterone levels and sperm count and quality.

     Pot could decrease libido and fertility in some heavy-smoking men. Contrary to what many pot smokers may tell you, marijuana is addictive, at least psychologically. Even among occasional users, one in 12 can feel withdrawal symptoms if they can't get high when they want to.

     Among heavy pot smokers, the rates of dependence are higher. Many experts also believe that marijuana is physically addictive.
    Symptoms of withdrawal from pot might include:
    Aggression
    Anxiety
    Depressed mood
    Decreased appetite

    Is pot a "gateway" drug?

    In other words, does smoking marijuana make someone more likely to try cocaine, heroin, ecstasy, and other "hard" drugs? The jury is still out on this one. It's true that pot smokers are more likely to use other drugs after trying marijuana.
    What's not clear is whether smoking pot causes further drug use or if people who start smoking pot are just more likely to try drugs in general. If you're wondering how long marijuana stays in your system after smoking, it depends on how often you smoke.
    Light users -
    - those who smoke pot once in a while -- will have a negative drug screen after a marijuana-free week.

     Heavy users -- sometimes called "stoners" -- may continue testing positive for a month after last smoking pot.  '

      

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